Chemical elements
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Carbon Tetrafluoride
      Carbon Tetrachloride
      Carbon Tetrabromide
      Carbon Tetraiodide
      Carbon Oxychloride
      Carbonyl Chloride
      Carbon Oxybromide
      Carbonyl Bromide
      Carbon Suboxide
      Carbon Monoxide
      Carbon Dioxide
      Percarbonic Acid
      Carbamic Acid
      Carbon Disulphide
      Carbonyl Sulphide
      Carbon Oxysulphide
      Thiocarbonyl Chloride
      Thiocarbonic Acid
      Thiocarbamic acid
      Carbon Monosulphide
      Carbon Subsulphide
      Carbon Sulphidoselenide
      Carbon Sulphidotelluride
      Carbon Nitrides
      Hydrocyanic Acid
      Prussic Acid
      Cyanogen Chloride
      Cyanogen Bromide
      Cyanogen Iodide
      Polymerised Cyanogen Halides
      Cyanic Acid
      Cyanuric Acid
      Fulminic Acid
      Thiocyanic Acid
      Sulphocyanic Acid
      Isoperthiocyanic Acid
      Cyanogen Sulphide
      Thiocyanic Anhydride
    Amorphous Carbon

Cyanogen Chloride, CNCl

Cyanogen chloride was first obtained by Berthollet by the action of chlorine on hydrocyanic acid; Wohler prepared it by passing chlorine into a saturated solution of mercuric chloride and subsequently distilling; and Gautier saturated aqueous hydrocyanic acid (1HCN:4Aq.) with chlorine, added excess of mercuric oxide and calcium chloride to the well-cooled solution, and afterwards distilled off the cyanogen chloride. Hantzsch and Mai added potassium cyanide to saturated chlorine water at 0° C. till all the chlorine was absorbed, then again saturated the liquid with chlorine and added more cyanide. The cyanogen chloride thus formed was then vaporised and condensed.

Cyanogen chloride has been variously described as a gas and a liquid. Possibly two forms of the liquid exist which boil at -12° C. and +12.7° C. (Regnault) or 15.5° C. (Wurtz) respectively. The vapour density is in either case 2.13, which corresponds to the molecular formula CNCl. The vapour has an irritating smell.

Liquid cyanogen chloride solidifies at -18° C. (Regnault) to a mass of long, transparent prisms which melt at -7° C. or, according to Wurtz, at -12° C. to -15° C.

The heat of formation of cyanogen chloride is +26,900 calories, and its heat of combustion 126,000 calories. This compound dissolves in water without decomposition, also in various organic solvents.

In the pure state cyanogen chloride is stable, though under certain conditions it polymerises into cyanuric chloride (CNCl)3. Alkalis decompose it into a mixture of cyanate and chloride:

CNCl + 2KOH = KCNO + KCl + H2O,

and ammonia solution forms cyanamide and ammonium chloride:

CNCl + 2NH3 = CN-NH2 + NH4Cl.

Cyanogen chloride forms the additive compounds BCl3.CNCl and TiCl4.CNCl; it is a synthetic agent in organic chemistry.

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